Students understanding the complexity of language

Chapter 05-05: Clauses I – Clause Type II


chapter 5: clause type ii

While Type I clauses do not require anything to follow the verb, linking verbs require a complement to complete it. In the case of Type II clauses, a BE main verb [linking] verb is required, along with a required adverbial complement – which completes the predicate and indicates time or place.
Type II clauses are the least common of the clause types, primarily because both of these elements are REQUIRED for a clause to be Type II.
The adverbial complement includes adverbs of time or place (e.g. here, there, outside, inside, far, away). Prepositional phrases of time or place (e.g in the morning or at the stronghold) and nominal phrases, although rare, (e.g. tomorrow, Friday) may also fill the complement slot. The following sentences demonstrate the variation in Type II clauses:
  1. Adverb: She is outside.
  2. Prepositional phrase: The troops are at the stronghold.
  3. Noun phrase: The attack will be tomorrow.
If there is more than one adverbial phrase that follows the linking  BE verb, one of the phrases will be considered the complement while the  other will be an optional adverbial modifier (which can be omitted):
The soldiers will be at the stronghold tomorrow.
  1. The soldiers will be at the stronghold.
  2. *The soldiers will be tomorrow.
In comparing the two sentences, at the stronghold is required, so it is the adverbial complement. Tomorrow is an optional adverbial modifier.
In analyzing for Type II clauses, a BE/linking verb and an adverbial of time or place are  required and both must be present.